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英语语法:英语语态讲解及练习(5)

  现在完成时讲解

  一、基本结构:主语+have/has+过去分词(done)

  ①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他

  ②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他

  ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他

  ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他)

  二、用法

  1) 现在完成时的"完成用法"

  现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态,但其结果却和现在有联系,也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在.

  He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了。)

  I have spent all of my money.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.)

  Jane has laid the table.(含义是:现在桌子已经摆好了.)

  2) 现在完成时的"未完成用法"

  指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去。这里的动词要用持续性动词。常与for(+时间段),since(+时间点)连用.

  Mary has been ill for three days.

  Mary has been ill since three days ago.

  注意:1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语)

  如yesterday(morning、afternoon),last(morning、afternoon)等,除非与for, since连用.

  2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用

  ,如already(肯定), yet(否定,疑问), just, before, recently, still, lately等:

  He has already obtained a scholarship.

  I haven't seen much of him recently (lately).

  We have seen that film before.

  Have they found the missing child yet ?

  3. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用,

  如ever, never, twice, several times等:

  Have you ever been to Beijing

  I have never heard Bunny say anything against her.

  I have used this pen only three times. It is still good.

  George has met that gentleman several times.

  4. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,

  如up to these few days/weeks/months/years, just, up to present(now), so far等:

  Peter has written six papers so far.

  Up to the present everything has been successful.

  5. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作.

  We have had four texts this semester.

  6. have been to 和have gone to的区别

  have been to 强调“去过”,现已不在那里,如:

  He has been to the USA three times.

  他到美国去过三次。(过去“到美国”,现在已“不在美国”)

  have gone to主要强调的是“去了”,现在人不在说话的现场,如:

  --Where's your mother? --你妈妈在哪?

  --She has gone to the hospital. --她去医院了。

  has been in 一直在某地

  三、现在完成时考点例析

  现在完成时是较难掌握、中考考查较多的时态。涉及的考点有:

  一、考查其构成

  "助动词have (has) +动词过去分词"构成现在完成时。如:

  1. Kate's never seen Chinese films,____ ? A. hasn't she B. has she C. isn't she D. is she

  析:陈述句部分含否定词never,简略问句部分要用肯定式,又因Kate's是Kate has的缩写,故选B。

  2. His uncle has already posted the photos to him. (改为否定句)

  His uncle ______ posted the photos to him ______.

  析:already常用在肯定句中,yet常用在否定句、疑问句中,故填hasn't, yet。

  3. -Ann has gone to Shanghai. -So ______her parents. A. has B. had C. did D. have

  析:"so+助/系/情态动词+主语"结构中的动词形式应与前句结构中动词形式保持一致,又后句的主语为her parents是复数,故选D。

  二、考查其用法与标志词

  (一)当句中有never, ever, just, already, yet, before等时,常用现在完成时。如:

  1. -Mum, may I go out and play basketball?  -______you______ your homework yet?

  A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finish D. Have; finished

  2. -______ you ______anywhere before? -Yes, but I can't remember where I______

  A. Did; surf; surfed B. Have; surfed; surfed

  C. Did; surf; have surfed D. Have; surfed; have surfed

  析:据yet和before可知,应用现在完成时,故1题选D,2题选D。

  (二)当句中有"for +段时间"或"since +点时间"等时,主句常用现在完成时,谓语动词必须是延续性动词,若是非延续性动词,要改为延续性动词或表状态的词(短语)。如:

  1. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice______he came to Yunnan.

  A. after B. before C. since D. for

  析:主句用的是现在完成时,而从句用的是一般过去时,故选C。

  2. Tom______the CD player for two weeks.

  A. has lent B. has borrowed C. has bought D. has had

  析:A、B、C均为非延续性动词,在肯定句中不与表"段时间"的短语连用,故选D。

  3. I______a letter from him since he left.

  A. didn't receive B. haven't got C. didn't have D. haven't heard

  析:据since可知,应排除A、C,"hear from sb.=receive/get/have a letter from sb."意为"收到某人的来信",故选B。

  三、考查have/has been (to, in)/have/has gone (to)的区别。如:

  1. -Have you ever______Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors? -Yes, I have.

  A. went to B. gone to C. been in D. been to

  析:据句中的have,排除A,B项意为"去某地了",C项意为"一直呆在某地",D项意为"去过某地",符合题意,故选D。

  2. My parents ______ Shangdong for ten years.

  A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

  析:本题句中有"for+段时间"结构,据此可排除C,B项意为"去过某地",不合题意,D项缺介词,故选A。

  四、考查现在完成时与其他时态的联系和区别。如:

  1. Sun's aunt has gone there for ten years.(改成正确的句子)

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