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语法结构

  内 容 提 要

  英语中的语态分主动语态和被动语态两种。英语中只有及物动词、动词短语和某些成语才能构成被动语态。被动语态的构成形式为“be+动词的?ED分词”。在下列情况下用被动语态:不知道或不必要提出动作的执行者;强调动作的承受者;“get+动词?ED分词”是被动词的特殊形式;某些系动词用主动表示被动;表示状态或特征的及物动词没有被动语态。总之,主动语态和被动语态是有一定区别的。

  I被动语态的构成

  被动语态的构成形式为“be+动词的?ED分词”,随时态的不同,“be”发生相应的变化,下表是be在英语八种被动时态中的变化形式

  一 般

  完 成

  进 行

  现在

  am,is,are + told

  have(has) been + told

  am,is,are + being told

  过去

  was,were+told

  had been + told

  was,were + being told

  将来

  will(shall) be + told

  过去将来

  would(should) be + told

  II被动语态的用法

  一、当我们不知道动作的执行者时

  1) Colorful posters were in San Francisco in the 1960s to publicize rock shows.

  [A] print

  [B] prints

  [C] printed

  [D] printing

  2) The main [A] stream of a river frequently is dividing [B] into two or more [C] branches near its mouth [D] .

  二、当我们不必要指出动作的执行者时

  3) The tenor drum(小鼓) is used primarily in military bands and is normally with small felt sticks.

  [A] play

  [B] played

  [C] to play

  [D] playing

  4) I’ll take down your name and address in case you as a witness.

  [A] are needed

  [B] will be needed

  [C] need

  [D] will need

  5) Cottage cheese, an American favorite [A] , can made easily [B] at home [C] from milk [D] ,lemon, juice, and salt.

  三、当我们强调或侧重动作的承受者时,这时我们通常用by引出动作的执行者

  6) The seating of musicians in an orchestra is arranged to produce the desired blend of sounds from the various musical sections.

  A the conductor of

  B from the conductor

  C the conductor and

  D by the conductor

  7) The bridge was hitting [A] by a large ship during [B] a sudden [C] storm last [D] week.

  四、“get+ed分词”的被动语态,这时习惯固定用法,这种结构往往更强调动作的结果而非动作的本身

  8) “Your daughter has two children, doesn’t she?”

  “That’s right. She in 1970.”

  [A] did marriage

  [B] was married

  [C] had married

  [D] got married

  9) Supposing you five bottles of beer, do you think you would get drunk?

  [A] were drinking

  [B] have drunk

  [C] were to drink

  [D] drink

  五、主动形式表示被动意义,如某些系动词如cook, feel, prove, smell和taste等其主动语态表示被动的意义

  10) The patted?shoes that my wife bought me comfortable.

  [A] felt

  [B] feels

  [C] was felt

  [D] is felt

  11) As [A] the proverb says [B] , “ Good medicine is tasted [C] bitter to [D] the mouth.”

  六、没有被动语态的词, 表示状态或特征的及物动词如contain, cost, fit, have, lack, suit等没有被动形式,另外,诸如happen, occur, take place, break out 等不及物动词或短语以及诸如result from(缘于),belong to, consist of等只用主动语态,而不用被动语态

  12) Some critics maintain that when [A] a work of literature is lacked [B] reference to [C] the general experience of mankind, it fails as art [D] .

  13) The book that I bought [A] the day before [B] yesterday is costed [C] me twenty and a half yuan [D] .

  [注]除此之外,某些词如反身代词和相互代词以及?ING和不定式不能作为被动语态的主语;某些被动语态没有相应的主动语态如“I was born in 1966.”。另外有些?ED分词已失去了被动的含义,它们和主语及“be”一起构成了主系表结构,如:be interested in, be concerned about, be based upon, be qualified for, be surprised at 等。穿着某种颜色的衣服一般说“be dressed in”,而不说“dress black clothes”, 但可以说“wear black clothes”。这些请大家在复习过程中也应加以注意。

  七、例题解析

  1) C为正确答案。我们不清楚是谁印的“彩色海报”。

  2) B错,改为is divided。具体是谁把它分成两三个分支,我们并不知道。

  3) B对。其实演奏小鼓的应是军乐队的人,但我们没必要提出来。

  4) B为正确答案。“我”或“他人”需要“你”做证人,但“我”或“他人”没必要指出来,这里强调的是“需要”动作的承受者,而不是动作的使动者,所以用被动语态。

  5) B错,改为can be made easily。制这种cottage cheese(酪农干酪)的人是家庭主妇或是做饭的人,这里我们也没必要指出。

  6) D对。这里强调的是“交响乐中乐队队员的座位”是由指挥来安排的。这里不强调指挥,所以用被动语态。

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